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(Color online) Effect of growth rate induced self-organization on the morphology of the active layer. AFM phase image of (a) fast grown and (b) slow grown polymer/fullerene blend films for a surface area.
Measured characteristics under dark for (a) hole-only and (b) electron-only PV devices consisting of P3HT/PCBM active layer grown at fast and slow rates. The solid lines represent the fit to the experimental data using SCLC model. The bias is corrected for built-in potential , arising from difference in the work function of the contacts, so that . values are for both hole- and electron-only devices.
Measured photocurrent as a function of effective applied bias for PV devices with fast and slow grown active layers. The characteristics under illumination (, simulated AM 1.5G) for two PV devices with different active layer growth rates are shown in the inset.
Measured (open symbols) and calculated (solid curves) normalized photocurrent as a function of effective applied bias for (a) fast and (b) slow grown films. The solid curves represent the values calculated from Onsager’s model.
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