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Schematic of metamaterials used in the experiment. (a) Diagram of single HSRR. The dimensions of the HSRR are , , , and . (b) Symmetric pieces consist of three-layered HSRR on one side of the epoxy glass board and wires on the other, the wires are wide and long. (c) Asymmetric pieces consist of two-layered HSRR, and the wires are the same. (d) Distances between unit cells are , , and .
Schematic of beam shifting experiment. The distance between the upper circular aluminum plate and lower plate is . is the length of the parallelogram-shaped sample’s short lateral, is the incidence angle on the surface of the sample, and is the circle graduation of the plate. By measuring the offset of transmission beam from the original incidence beam, the refractive index of the sample could be found.
Transmission curve of the LHM with asymmetric defects. The left-handed transmission peak is divided into two bands, from and from with the crest of band at the frequencies of 9.10 and , and the stop band occurs near the frequency of .
Result of beam shifting experiment. (a) At the frequency of , the crest of LHM appears at the angle of , the crest of Teflon appears at the angle of 3.7°, and the crest of air appears at the angle of 5.7°. (b) At the frequency of , the crest of LHM appears at the angle of , the crest of Teflon appears at the angle of 3.7°, and the crest of air appears at the angle of 5.7°.
Measured results at the frequencies of 9.10, 9.35, and . The transmission power at any angle is weak to zero at the frequency of , and no negative refraction has been observed.
Measured refractive index as a function of frequency. This LHM has two frequency bands of negative refraction from and from . Here, the refractive index of represents the fact that almost no ejected beam has been detected at any direction.
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