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(Color online) Processing steps for fabrication of the LC diffractive lens with three-layer patterned electrodes and two-layer via structures. At the bottom of the figure, the top view of the finished layers is shown with eight bus lines as an example. The design can be used for any higher phase levels.
Characterization of the LC lens. (a) Electro-optic response of individual electrode rings. [(b)–(d)] Diffraction efficiency as a function of the beam diameter, position on the lens, and incidence angle, respectively. (e) Switching dynamics of the lens. (f) Interferogram.
(Color online) Assembly of a complete lens.
Hybrid imaging using the varifocal LC lens. The LC lens is (a) off and (b) activated with 1 diopter power. (c) An eight-level 1 diopter LC lens can be reconfigured to a four-level 2 diopter lens. (d) Hybrid imaging with the 2 diopter power.
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