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Study of copper diffusion through a ruthenium thin film by photoemission electron microscopy
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10.1063/1.2712832
/content/aip/journal/apl/90/11/10.1063/1.2712832
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/apl/90/11/10.1063/1.2712832
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Figures

Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Set of six PEEM images taken from the same sample area of a thick Ru film covering a thick Cu substrate. The temperature was monotonically increased and images were obtained at the indicated temperatures. The image contrast is provided primarily by the difference in work function between the two metals. The image resolution is roughly , for the field of view, and is limited by the camera pixel number. Spatial resolution below is possible for a proportionally reduced field of view.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Ion sputtering x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiles of (a) a thick Ru film covering a thick Cu substrate and (b) the same sample after heating to . Before heating, the XPS results reveal a atomic ratio of 1.6. After heating to , the initial ratio is decreased to 0.1. The sputtering time dependence of the atomic ratio is discussed in the text.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) (a) Local structures are observed in the PEEM image of a sample after it is cooled to room temperature following heating to . SEM (b) and AFM (c) images reveal these structures to be small islands in width and several hundred nanometers in height. Selective area EDS analysis indicates that the islands and smooth surface consist largely of copper.

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/content/aip/journal/apl/90/11/10.1063/1.2712832
2007-03-13
2014-04-20
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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Study of copper diffusion through a ruthenium thin film by photoemission electron microscopy
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/apl/90/11/10.1063/1.2712832
10.1063/1.2712832
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