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(a) Hysteretic-type switching behaviors in the memory window from critical positive set voltage to negative reset voltage. characteristics at RT in double logarithmic plots in the positive-voltage region (b) and in the negative-voltage region (c). Note that the absolute values of current and voltage are obtained from both origins.
times of endurance test of by voltage pulses. (b) Retention properties of and at RT and .
XPS depth profiling of film. More than 5% copper is diffused into film from the copper substrate.
(a) Spreading resistance image measured by the conducting AFM at low resistance state. (b) Spreading resistance image at high resistance state.
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