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(Color online) (a) Schematic view of actuator integrated focal tunable liquid lens. (b) Mechanisms of electromagnetic actuator and focal tunable lens.
(Color online) Fabrication process and thickness of PDMS membrane for various spin speed.
(Color online) (a) Fabricated device for electromagnetic actuator and its experimental setup using permanent magnet. (b) Magnified view of PDMS membranes. (c) SEM image of membranes for actuating part and lens part before PDMS is coated. (d) SEM image of PDMS membrane with gold coil.
(Color online) (a) Quarterly surface profile of deformed width rectangular PDMS membrane when applied current is . (b) Deformation profile of cross section shown in (a) for various currents.
(Color online) (a) Completed device with liquid chamber on the PDMS membranes. (b) Schematic view of its optical experiment setup. (c) Results of the optical experiment of width membrane when applied current varied from .
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