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(Color online) Schematic band diagram of the internal photoemission luminescence heterostructure showing the metal-semiconductor Schottky barrier (SB) in (a) unbiased and (b) biased conditions. The rectifying SB prohibits thermalized electrons from recombining with holes in the QW, so photons are emitted only when hot electrons are injected over the barrier by a sub-band-gap photon and a voltage bias is applied to satisfy energy conservation (see Refs. 2–4).
(Color online) Band diagram of the passive upconversion device fabricated and measured in this work. Interband photoexcitation in regions (a) and (c) causes electron and hole injections into the light-emitting structure in region (b), without an external voltage bias.
Current-voltage relation of the upconversion device in the dark and under illumination with photons. Note the substantial photocurrent at zero bias, making this a passive device.
(Color online) Optical spectra of emitted light under illumination at several external bias values. The peak values of the upconverted luminescence at approximately match the magnitude of photocurrent measured simultaneously in Fig. 3.
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