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Sketch of the setup used to fabricate channel waveguides in -doped tellurite glasses by ion irradiation. A silicon mask, with an opening of about , is placed in front of the sample before each exposure in order to define a channel waveguide.
(a) Distribution of oxygen and tellurium vacancies in tungsten tellurite glasses as a function of the target depth using SRIM simulation. (b) Distribution of the implanted ions as a function of the target depth. The ion energy is .
(a) Channel waveguide near field image at . The 2D confinement of the light demonstrates that there is an increase in the refractive index in the exposed region. Irradiation dose is . (b) Confined green upconversion of ions along the waveguide after pumping. The end-fire coupled input fiber is visible on the right side.
Profilometer scan of the surface of the tellurite glass in the direction transversal to the channel of Fig. 3. A surface swelling of about is measured around the exposed area due to volume expansion produced by the irradiated ions.
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