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(Color online) hysteresis loops. The control and active devices have negligible hysteresis when uncharged, forward and backward between 0 and (light solid, labeled). Under charging/discharging conditions , the control device (squares, labeled) has a hysteresis of only ; however, the active device (triangles, labeled) has a hysteresis of , corresponding to an estimated stored hole charge density of . The curves of both control and active devices are well behaved and agree with the ideal simulated (dark solid, labeled). The inset shows a schematic of the MOS capacitor system.
Shift in voltage as a function of the program voltage for a control device (zero nanoparticles), and active devices with varying nanoparticle densities, achieved by the dilution of the starting nanoparticle solution. After programming with , we estimate stored hole charge densities of , , and , and negligible charging for the control device.
Charge retention measured at room temperature. 25% of the stored hole charge is lost in , 50% in , and by extrapolation, full charge loss should occur in .
Endurance characteristics. Programming/erasing with pulses at . Only slight decrease in the hysteresis is observed after .
Proposed energy band diagram, with energy values in eV that takes into consideration the electronic structure of 1 nm silicon nanoparticles: large energy gap (), large charging energy (), and small electron affinity ().
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