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(Color online) Conveyor-belt building of large-scale multiparticle structures. Formation [(a) and (b)] and transportation [(b) and (c)] of the particle structures by energizing (red) and grounding (blue) electrodes.
(Color online) Experimental setup. (a) A microchamber mounted on a manipulator equipped with three stages, 1–3, and a microscope. (b) Two-electrode array ABTECH chip (electrodes seen as black). (c) Multielectrode array Sandia chip (electrodes seen as white).
Two-electrode array ABTECH chip energized with , chamber top grounded, and suspension of latex beads. (a) Initially, the electrodes were barely visible through the suspension. (b) Beads were concentrated into columns (seen as white) in the low-field regions caused by energizing electrode array 1 and grounding array 2 [Fig. 2(b)] and then (c) were moved to other low-field regions by grounding array 1 and energizing array 2 [Fig. 2(b)]. (d) Columns were formed by energizing array 1 and grounding array 2 and (e) were translated by moving the chip with velocity using stage 1 [Fig. 2(a)] but (f) were destabilized at a chip velocity of . White arrows on (b) and (c) as well as (d) and (e) indicate the sequential positions of the same column, respectively. Chamber height: [(a)–(c)] and [(d)–(f)] .
Section of the multielectrode array of the Sandia chip energized with ac voltage at , chamber top grounded, chamber height , and suspension of latex beads. (a) The beads were concentrated into columns (seen as white) in the low-field regions by applying to electrode arrays 1, 2, and 4 and grounding array 3 [Fig. 2(c)] and (b) were moved by disconnecting arrays 2 and 3, and (c) were moved further by grounding array 2 and applying to array 3. The white arrows indicate the sequential positions of the same column.
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