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40% efficient metamorphic multijunction solar cells
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1.Energy Information Administration, International Energy Annual 2004, released May–July 2006, http://www.eia.doe.gov/iea/overview.html
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FIG. 1.

(Color online) Calculated contours of ideal three-junction solar cell efficiency as a function of top and middle subcell band gaps, and . Measured efficiencies and , combinations are shown for the record efficiency 40.7% MM and 40.1% LM cells described in the text. The band gaps in the metamorphic system are plotted for disordered and ordered group-III sublattices in the GaInP subcell.

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FIG. 2.

(Color online) Loss mechanisms in metamorphic and lattice-matched three-junction terrestrial solar cells as a function of incident intensity of sunlight.

Image of FIG. 3.

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FIG. 3.

(Color online) Measured band gap-voltage offset for a range of LM and MM subcell materials and bandgaps at 1 sun. Comparison to theory gives a measure of the SRH recombination present. The effective lifetime, an upper limit on the bulk lifetime, is derived from the cell measurements.

Image of FIG. 4.

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FIG. 4.

(Color online) External quantum efficiency for GaInP, GaInAs, and Ge subcells in MM and LM three-junction cells, and the space and terrestrial solar spectra.

Image of FIG. 5.

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FIG. 5.

(Color online) Measured illuminated characteristics of record efficiency 40.7% metamorphic and 40.1% lattice-matched three-junction solar cells under the concentrated terrestrial solar spectrum, and 31.3% MM and 32.0% LM 1 sun cells. These measurements are independently verified by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL).


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An efficiency of 40.7% was measured and independently confirmed for a metamorphic three-junction cell under the standard spectrum for terrestrial concentrator solar cells at 240 suns (, AM1.5D, low aerosol optical depth, ). This is the initial demonstration of a solar cell with over 40% efficiency, and is the highest solar conversion efficiency yet achieved for any type of photovoltaic device. Lattice-matched concentrator cells have now reached 40.1% efficiency. Electron-hole recombination mechanisms are analyzed in metamorphic and materials, and fundamental power losses are quantified to identify paths to still higher efficiencies.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: 40% efficient metamorphic GaInP∕GaInAs∕Ge multijunction solar cells