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An efficiency of 40.7% was measured and independently confirmed for a metamorphic three-junction cell under the standard spectrum for terrestrial concentrator solar cells at 240 suns (, AM1.5D, low aerosol optical depth, ). This is the initial demonstration of a solar cell with over 40% efficiency, and is the highest solar conversion efficiency yet achieved for any type of photovoltaic device. Lattice-matched concentrator cells have now reached 40.1% efficiency. Electron-hole recombination mechanisms are analyzed in metamorphic and materials, and fundamental power losses are quantified to identify paths to still higher efficiencies.


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