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TEM images of a Cu (111)-oriented grain and the corresponding SAED patterns at different stages during electrical current stressing.
Dark field image obtained from the forbidden reflections for the inspected Cu (111) grain in an electrically stressed Cu line and the corresponding SAED patterns.
(a) Schematic diagram of the atomic migration path for Cu atoms on (111) crystal planes and (b) the cross-sectional view of the Cu (111) crystal planes.
High-resolution TEM images of Cu atoms on the crystal planes in the stressed Cu line as a function of time. The high-resolution TEM images were analyzed by fast Fourier transform techniques. The labeled arrows indicate the atomic surface steps on the Cu crystal planes. The cross refers to a fixed point for ease of inspection.
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