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(Color online) Schematic of planar electrode piezoelectric force microscopy setup. Epitaxial electrodes embedded in the film plane supply an alternating electric field that excites a piezoresponse in the , providing three-dimensional information about the local ferroelectric polarization direction.
(Color online) (a) Piezoresponse (PR) map showing that positive and negative polarization vectors produce dark and bright tones, respectively, in the OP-PR image. Positioning the cantilever along a direction of maximizes contrast in the IP-PR image. Buckling of the cantilever produces a small contrast in the OP-PR images to distinguish the degenerate IP-PR tones of and . (b) Topography, (c) OP-PR, and (d) IP-PR from a PE-PFM scan of between coplanar electrodes.
(Color online) Growth of a polarization-switched region (circled) from one electrode toward the other as the field strength is increased. Small OP-PR images are set above the larger IP-PR images.
(Color online) Evolution of 71° domain walls rotating as a function of poling time and bias polarity; the cartoon shows the observed polarization variants and domain. The scanning electron micrograph of the surrounding region shows that PE-PFM images were captured in a nonuniform field; field lines are depicted schematically.
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