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(a) Chemical structures of NPB, PEDOT:PSS, and perylene. (b) An energy diagram of the undoped and perylene-doped NPB single-layer devices. The dashed rectangle is the doping region, where the LUMO and HOMO of perylene are located at 2.3 and , respectively.
Current-voltage characteristics and luminance-current characteristics of NPB devices. The filled (∎) and opened (□) symbols represent the undoped and perylene-doped devices, respectively. The solid line is the theoretical hole trap-free space charge-limited current of NPB.
EL spectra of undoped NPB devices (in solid line) and perylene-doped NPB devices (in dashed line). The dotted line is the absorption spectrum of perylene.
EL performances of undoped and perylene-doped NPB single-layer devices at .
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