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(Color online) (a) Characteristic TEM image of S1. (b) Histogram of a diameter distribution of S1. (c) A TEM image showing a nanorod connected with a nanoparticle. The inset shows the SAED pattern recorded at a camera length of , reflecting the hexagonal wurtzite ZnO structure. (d) HRTEM image at the connecting region shown in (c) marked with a circle, taken along the  zone axis. These two particles are fused into each other, indicative of the crystal growth mechanism of imperfect oriented attachment. The inset shows the corresponding FFT pattern, revealing the faster growth along the  direction. (e) Powder XRD patterns of S1 and S2.
(Color online) XPS spectra of S1 and S2. (a) XPS survey scan spectra (using a source; ). Peak positions are referenced to the adventitious C peak taken to be at . No magnetic impurities are detected. (b) High-resolution XPS spectra at Cu state energy. Spin-orbit coupling leads to the energy split of and .
(Color online) (a) Field-dependent magnetization curves of S1 and S2 at . The diamagnetic background of the white plastic gelatin holder has been subtracted. The coercivity of S1 is at . The hysteresis loop of S1 after FC of is also included (divided by 4). The inset shows its enlargement near the low-field region. The horizontally negative shift of the loop is clearly seen. [(b) and (c)] Temperature-dependent magnetization curves of S1 under ZFC and FC conditions at a low field and a high field , respectively.
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