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(a) X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of as-grown and -annealed films. An XRD pattern of a -annealed pure film is shown in gray. The symbols A and B denote the diffraction peaks of anatase (Ref. 13) and rutile (Ref. 14) structures, respectively. (b) Cross-sectional TEM image of an as-grown film. (c) He Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) spectra of a TNO film on thermally oxidized silicon wafer. Gray and black lines show experimental and simulated results, respectively.
(a) Resistivity of pure and films on glass before and after annealing. (b) Four-probe resistivity of an as-grown film measured in situ during heating and subsequent cooling treatments.
(a) Resistivity, (b) carrier density, and (c) Hall mobility of polycrystalline (solid line) and epitaxial (dashed line) TNO films plotted as a function of temperature.
(a) Optical transmission and reflection spectra and (b) absorption spectra of as-grown (gray) and annealed (black) films.
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