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Details of the columnar plasma excitation at low pressure, and the material synthesis onto the substrate. (a) Photograph of the columnar plasma excited at . (b) Geometrical arrangement of the filament, anode, and substrate, exciting the columnar plasma at low pressure under the Lorentz force , which applies to electrons toward the anode, where the magnetic field increases along the vertical direction of the substrate surface. The boron-doped -type Si (100) wafer substrate can be heated up to by the direct current method.
SEM photograph of carbon particles synthesized on a Si (100) surface maintained at under a plasma irradiation time of . Peculiar shaped particles are surrounded by dotted lines: A, single particle; B, C, D, and E, aggregates formed by particles of similar size.
Model for the agglomeration between liquid carbon particles by the capillary forces based on the Laplace pressure.
SEM photograph suggesting that spherical carbon liquids begin to display a collective behavior in the sheath region, which is obtained at the surface area different from that of Fig. 2. Aggregate like “strings” are noted in the various places.
Projection patterns to the surface of the hcp crystal under the assumption that the axis is tilted from the surface normal and the lattice sites are occupied by the spherical particles: (a) projection of the crystal consisted of cells, , and (b) projection of the same crystal consisted of cells, .
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