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Nb (110) on -plane sapphire. Top: RHEED images along the (a)  and (b) azimuths after growth at , and (c) after annealing above . Left: AFM image of annealed Nb, height scale. Right: XRD radial scan of the Nb (110) Bragg peak.
Top: RHEED images from epitaxial on Nb (110), taken along the azimuth after deposition of (a) , (b) , and (c) . Bottom: AFM scans on films that are (left, height scale) and (right, ) thick.
Strain vs film thickness for epitaxial on Nb (110). (●) Strain of a film measured during deposition. (◇) Strain observed for a number of samples after deposition and cooling, with error bars indicating the range of strain values measured along different RHEED azimuths.
(Color online) XRD pole figure for an epitaxial trilayer grown on -plane sapphire. Both Nb layers have a (110) surface orientation. This scan shows the off-axis ⟨110⟩ Bragg peaks. The four peaks connected by the dashed rectangle are approximately four times stronger than the others.
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