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Schematic drawing of virgin state and revered state separated by a 180° domain wall in a partially poled . : spontaneous polarization; internal field; : external electric field.
(a) and (c) are the interference images at 0 and external field, respectively. (b) and (d) are the corresponding maps of phase shift.
Two-dimensional map of phase shift at external field across the crystal thickness just after being partially poled. is the phase contrast between two opposite states.
Linear relation between phase contrast and applied external field from .
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