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(a) TEM cross sectional image of interfaces (Ref. 10). The ULK used is porous SiLK™ (Ref. 11), a polystryrene-based porous polymer with average pore size of and bulk value of 2.2. Ta atoms were sputtered onto the pore-sealing layers to form a thick Ta barrier film, followed by the sputtering deposition of thick Cu conductor film. (b) SIMS profiles for interfaces showing the penetration of Ta and Cu atoms into the ULK polymer.
(Color online) Structures of Ta atoms above three amorphous surfaces of H molar percentages of (a) 15%, (b) 25%, and (c) 35%. Depositions were carried out in two successive batches of 16 Ta atoms each via a CPMD simulation at .
RDF of Ta structures on SiC:H substrates with different H concentrations. The curve for Ta structure on pure SiC was reported previously.
(Color online) States of Cu diffusion into Ta after (a) , (b) , and (c) . The bottom substrate is amorphous with 35% H content.
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