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Cross-sectional diagram of vertically aligned nanocone array showing dimensions and angles used in the model.
Plot of the predicted restoring pressure for liquid on a nanocone array with a flat-surface liquid-solid contact angle of and apex half-angle .
SEM images of nanocone arrays and optical images of water drops on nanocone arrays. (a) Lowest aspect ratio nanocones tested, with (b) advancing drop and (c) receding drop. (d) Highest aspect ratio nanocones tested, with (e) advancing drop and (f) receding drop.
Plot of results of (top) advancing and receding contact angle and (bottom) rolling angle measurements of water drops on nanocone arrays depending on the nanocone aspect ratio (or apex half-angle ). The vertical dashed line indicates the location of the predicted Wenzel to Cassie transition. Each contact angle data point and error bar is the mean and standard deviation of the mean of five measurements. For all but one nanocone aspect ratio, the drops would not roll off the surface at any inclination (indicated as 90°) or could not be balanced on the surface (indicated as 0°).
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