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Morphological and crystallographic characterizations of (0001) by AFM and RHEED after ex situ hydrogen cleaning; (a) AFM scan showing atomic steps that form along the direction with a rms roughness of ; RHEED pattern showing a sharp R30° surface reconstruction pattern with electron incidence along (b) azimuth and (c) azimuth.
RHEED patterns and AFM scans of MgO thin films grown on (0001) at different Mg:O flux ratios; (a) 1:99, (b) 1:49, (c) 1:30, and (d) 1:20. Left column corresponds to an incidence along the azimuth for bulk , which correlates to an incidence along the for MgO (111). Center column corresponds to an incidence along the azimuth for , which correlates to an incidence along the for MgO (111). The right column corresponds to AFM scans with rms values of 2.8, 0.23, 0.45, and for (a)–(d), respectively.
XPS elemental scan of for (a) clean , (b) MgO on , and (c) MgO on after annealing at for . The consistency of the peak indicates that the MgO film is thermally stable without any diffusion at the interface.
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