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Schematic structure of FIB cross-sectional observations and Monte Carlo simulation region in the lower layer of the Cu line.
Transversal FIB images of EM-induced voiding at the Cu/cap/liner interface.
Transversal TEM image of EM voiding at Cu/cap/liner interface.
Simulation of vacancy and void evolution process. (a) Plan-view observation. (b) Cross-sectional observation.
(Color online) Illustration of vacancy collection and void migration towards Cu/cap/liner edge.
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