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Irreversible modification of phase change material by nanometer-thin Ti adhesion layers in a device-compatible stack
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) Schematic cross section of a phase-change memory cell. The critical adhesion layer is in direct contact with the transforming region.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) Stress evolution of GST-225 films on substrates capped with (a) TiN, (b) , and (c) . The tensile stress rise at is seen in all test structures. However, a new distinct feature between 300 and is found only when a Ti adhesion layer is present. The corresponding stress slope around this feature is shown in panels (d)–(f). It emphasizes the systematic change in the slope with increased thickness of Ti.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) (a) Calorimetric trace during the phase change for a film stack with a Ti adhesion layer taken with a DuPont DSC 2910 differential calorimeter. The shaded region is where the hcp phase heat-of-fusion peak would appear in the absence of Ti. (b) X-ray diffraction patterns for GST-225 films capped with quench annealed in flowing He. A Philips 1729 diffractometer with line was used. The spectra are shifted for clarity and are normalized to the fcc GST ⟨200⟩ peak for the quenched film.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) SIMS depth profiles (obtained using focused beam) for Ge, Sb, Te, N, Si, and Ti elements in annealed GST-225 films capped with (a) TiN and (b) . The film profiles before anneal are indicated near the top of each panel. Corresponding insets emphasize the difference in the intermixing between Ti and Te without and with a Ti layer.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Irreversible modification of Ge2Sb2Te5 phase change material by nanometer-thin Ti adhesion layers in a device-compatible stack