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Function of the photoionizing radiation in the range of in air, taken from Ref. 15 (squares) and fit according to Eq. (2) (solid line) with the parameters , , , and .
Evolution of streamers in a field of (left column) and in a field of (other three columns). Plotted is the contour of the half maximum of the space charge at different times. The time interval between two consecutive snapshots is for the high field and for the low field. Lengths are measured in units of . Shown are streamers (a) without photoionization, (b) in air at atmospheric pressure, and (c) at low pressures . Note that the computational domain is larger than the plotted area.
Evolution of the logarithmic electron density on the streamer axis at pressure (solid lines) and without photoionization (dashed lines) in the high field (above), corresponding to columns 2 and 4 in Fig. 2 and low field (below), which corresponds to the upper and lower plots in the left column of Fig. 2.
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