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(Color online) (a) Cross-sectional schematic of an EWOD device (adapted from Ref. 2). (b)Equivalent circuit for the EWOD configuration (adapted from Ref. 1). (c) dc charging time constant for EWOD activation vs connecting resistance. (d) ac voltage loss during EWOD activation vs connecting resistance.
(Color online) (a) AFM image of sprayed nanotube film with . (b) Sheet resistance vs transmittance for sprayed nanotube films on two transparent substrates (glass wafer and PET). The data are fitted to Eq. (1).
(Color online) (a) Process sequence used for patterning nanotube films. (1) Treat transparent substrate with silane and spray nanotubes on it, (2) pattern PR, (3) plasma etch nanotubes, and (4) remove PR with acetone. (b) An alternative process (lift-off) for obtaining patterned nanotube films. (1) Pattern PR, (2) treat the substrate with silane and spray nanotube films, and (3) remove PR.
(Color online) (a) Patterned nanotube films on glass wafer. (b) Patterned films on flexible PET substrate. No gold patterns here. (c) Enlarged image of the patterned nanotube lines. (d) Transmittance vs wavelength for nanotube films before and after lithographic patterning. Note that the sheet resistance changes little after patterning the films.
(Color online) (a) Schematic drawing for a gold contact pad and a nanotube pixel, connected through a wide nanotube line. (b) Contact angle vs applied voltage through nanotube pixel area. [(c)–(e)] Sequential images showing droplet movement. The droplet size is approximately .
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