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Efficient electrothermal actuation of multiple modes of high-frequency nanoelectromechanical resonators
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) (a) Scanning electron micrograph of one of the devices used in the experiments (oblique view). The insets show top-view closeup images of the detection (left) and drive (right) metal loops. (b) Schematic of the experimental setup: DC denotes directional coupler, FD frequency doubler, and HPF high-pass filter.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) Raw signal, referred to the preamplifier input, from a -long beam. The root-mean-square amplitudes of the drive and bias voltages are 22 and , respectively. The inset shows both quadratures of the resonant response of the tenth out-of-plane mode (not shown in main panel) and the almost indistinguishable Lorentzian fit to the data.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) Efficiency of electrothermal drive and piezoresistive detection, normalized to that of the fundamental mode, for the first 12 out-of-plane modes of the -long beam. The stars show experimental data, while the connected symbols show the results of finite-element simulations excluding (circles) and including (squares) the effect of thermal rolloff. The inset shows the predicted shape of the 11th out-of-plane mode.


Generic image for table
Table I.

Predicted, , and experimental, , resonance frequencies, as well as quality factors in vacuum, , for the lowest twelve out-of-plane (out) modes and lowest five in-plane (in) modes of a -long beam. In simulations, we assume the following material properties for the SiC layer: Young’s modulus of , Poisson ratio of 0.3, mass density of , (Ref. 17), and intrinsic tensile strain of . The strain value was varied to obtain the best fit to the experimental frequencies.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Efficient electrothermal actuation of multiple modes of high-frequency nanoelectromechanical resonators