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Schematic diagram of the proposed electrode. Illumination to the electrode increases the conductivity of layer and addresses a stimulating site.
Temporal change of the electrode luminous sensitivities during exposure to culture medium. The epoxy binder and an acrylic binder were tested. Luminous sensitivity is defined as the dark-to-bright impedance ratio at .
Photoelectric property of the electrode. Charge densities generated by voltage-controlled pulse application (top panel) and the bright-to-dark ratios (bottom panel) are plotted against voltages applied. Power densities of illumination provided to the electrode were varied from . Error bars are the standard deviation (SD) from four electrodes.
(Color) Neuronal activation induced by light-addressed stimulation. Difference ratios between pre- and poststimulus fluorescence intensities, , are color-coded above SD and imposed on the raw fluorescence images. Each fluorescence image was recorded with the exposure time of . The broken line shows a locally illuminated area.
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