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Schematic diagram of the cross section of an inorganic-organic upconverter device. Note that the thickness of the organic and inorganic layers is not to the scale. Hole transport layers consist of NPB, CuPc, and . CuPc stands for copper phthalocyanine. NPB is -di(naphthalene-l-yl)--diphenyl-benzidine.
Current-voltage-luminance curves of the upconversion device under infrared illumination (input power density of ). The inset shows the emission spectrum from the OLED of the integrated upconverter peaked at in wavelength (green light).
(a) Measured photocurrent density as a function of device bias under infrared radiation (at ) and the calculated responsivity (A/W) of the detector component. (b) Measured luminance efficiency (cd/A) of the OLED component of the integrated upconverter and the calculated optical power efficiency (W/A). (c) Overall external upconversion efficiency (W/W) as a function of device bias calculated by multiplying the responsivity of the part (a) and the OLED power efficiency (b).
OLED luminance efficiency of the two devices with (A) or without (B) surface treatment. It shows that the surface treatment significantly enhances the device performance by reducing the turn-on voltage by (at ) and by improving the maximum OLED luminance efficiency from .
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