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(Color online) Rapid thermal annealing temperature dependence of (a) and (b) . Black and red solid lines in (a) correspond to the bilayer in the as deposited state and annealed at . Black, blue, and red solid lines in (b) correspond to the bilayer in the as deposited state and annealed at 400 and , respectively.
(Color online) Oxidation time dependence of current-voltage curves for the microfabricated trilayer pattern. The oxidation time is (a) , (b) , and (c) . The Pt top electrode area is . Black, blue, and red solid curves in (a) and (b) correspond to the forming, reset, and set processes, respectively. The black solid curve in (c) is the initial current-voltage curves, showing no forming. The arrows in the figures show the direction of the external voltage sweep.
(Color online) Pt top electrode area dependence and temperature dependence of the current in [(a) and (b)] (0%) and [(c) and (d)] (0%). Blue open triangles and red open circles correspond to the high and low resistance states, respectively.
(Color online) X-ray photoelectron spectra for (a) Ni in Ni–O, (b) O in Ni–O, (c) Co in Co–O, and (d) O in Co–O. Black solid curve corresponds to the annealed specimen. Red solid curves are the XPS spectra for the specimen deposited with the oxygen partial pressure . Blue solid curves are the XPS spectra for the specimen deposited with and 5%.
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