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Differential atomic magnetometry based on a diverging laser beam
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) (A) Diverging beam magnetometer. (a) Single-layer magnetic shield. (b) Three-dimensional Helmholtz coils. [(c) and (d)] Heating coils for laser and cell “hot fingers.” (e) VCSEL baseplate. (f) VCSEL with quarter wave plate on top. (g) cell. (h) Quadrant photodiode. (B) A schematic diagram of the operation of the differential magnetometer. The average direction of the pump beam defines the axis. is the field to be measured, lying at an angle to the axis. for optimal differential signal.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) Output of the lock-in amplifier, referenced to the driving field as is slowly scanned with . (a) photodiode 1, (b) photodiode 2, and (c) differential signal.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) Noise at the zero crossing of the dispersive resonance (Fig. 2) as a function of frequency. (a) photodiode 1 only, (b) photodiode 2 only, (c) differential signal, and (d) technical and fundamental noise limit—measured electronic noise (including johnson noise) with calculated photon shot noise added in quadrature. A measurement of the noise on each channel around is taken and displayed on the right hand axis.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) Dispersion signal height as a function of the tilt angle of , . Photodiode 1 only (crosses, solid line), photodiode 2 only (triangle, dotted line), and differential signal (circles). The symbols show experimental data and the lines show a fit of the dependence of Eq. (1) to the data.


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Scitation: Differential atomic magnetometry based on a diverging laser beam