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(a) Voltage distribution in the solder joint with a Kelvin structure. The possible positions for the voltage probe on the chip side are also shown in the figure, including 0°, 45°, 90°, and 180°. (b) The voltage profile along the arc on the chip side. (c) The voltage profile along the arc on the substrate side.
The cross-sectional view for five of the simulation models. The depletion percentage of the UBM opening is (a) 0%, (b) 6%, (c) 50%, and (d) 75%.
(a) The increase in voltage as a function of depletion percentage of UBM opening with the four different positions of voltage probe on the chip side. (b) Percentage increase in bump resistance vs depletion percentage of UBM opening for the four layouts. (c) Enlarged illustration for Fig. 2(b) within 22% increase in bump resistance.
(a) Cross-sectional SEM image for a SnPb bump after being stressed by at for . (b) The corresponding change in resistance as a function of stressing time.
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