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(Color online) (a) O vacancy formation energy vs Fermi energy in . (b) Equivalent model with vacancy electrons falling to the Fermi level of a metal gate.
(Color online) (a) Experimental free energy of bulk metal oxide per O. (b) Energy of reaction (3).
(Color online) (a) O vacancy formation energy vs Fermi energy in on a Si substrate, with the reaction allowed. (b) Band bending due to charge vacancies.
(Color online) (a) Calculated effective work functions and depletion layer potential vs vacuum work function of gate metal. (b) Calculated vacancy density.
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