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(a) A typical energy harvesting cycle for a piezoelectric material, where is the harvested electric energy density, is the total input elastic energy density, and is the elastic energy density delivered from the piezomaterial to the external mechanical environment. Here, the transverse strain and stress and are used. and are the elastic compliances under constant field (short circuit) and constant charge (open circuit) electric conditions. (b) One ideal energy harvesting cycle for a piezoelectric material in which by modifying electric boundary condition of the piezomaterial (imposing an electric field to oppose the strain in the path from 2 to 3 as the stress is reduced), becomes zero and a higher harvested electric energy density can be obtained.
(a) Schematic of the experimental setup used for the active energy harvesting with the electrostrictive polymers. (b) The transverse strain as a function of applied field for the electrostrictive polymer.
(Color online) The recorded strain-stress curve in the energy harvesting cycle with the electrostrictive polymer and active energy harvesting scheme. A strain of about 3% is induced in the energy harvesting cycle.
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