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Equivalent model for ME laminate sensor and detection method: (a) fundamental ME equivalent model; (b) ME laminate signal model; (c) equivalent circuitry for ME laminate with direct measurement method; (d) ME laminate model with noise consideration; and (e) ME laminate with noise spectra and current amplifier.
(Color online) (a) Voltage as a function of frequency in ME direct measurement, illustrating a cutoff frequency below which shows that significant roll-off occurs with decreasing frequency, and (b) the magnetoelectric charge coefficient as a function of frequency, which shows a near constant value at low frequencies.
(Color online) (a) Linearity of the ME sensor system at 1, 10, and , and (b) SNR and lowest detective signal for L-T ME laminate.
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