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Optical setup of the laser scanning CARS imaging system. Laser 1 and Laser 2 are picosecond lasers with the outputs at and , respectively; T1 and T2: lens telescopes; WP1 and WP2: waveplates; M1–M13: dichroic dielectric mirrors; O1 and O2: objectives; the optical delay line, filter wheels F1–F3, Glan-Thompson polarizers P1–P4, and the galvano scanner are all controlled by a computer; photomultiplier tubes in the channels of TPF, E-CARS, and F-CARS are marked, respectively.
CARS and Raman spectral lines of the CN bond of 8CB for laser polarizations parallel and perpendicular to . Insets (i)–(iii) show F-CARS in-plane images of the FCD at [(i) and (ii)] resonance frequency for two orthogonal polarizations of detected CARS signal, and (iii) at frequency (away from the resonance). Image size in the insets is corresponding to the area .
(Color) Depth-resolved single-scan cross sections of the FCD obtained in nonlinear microscopy modes of (a) F-CARS, (b) E-CARS, and (c) epi-TPF. Image size is . (d) FCD’s director structure in the plane of ellipse: is in-plane radial inside of the ellipse and vertical outside; dark bands mark regions of the strongest CARSPM signal, where is parallel to linear polarizations of probing beams.
(Color) FCDs in a stack of parallel smectic layers. (a) cross section of the layered structure and (c) corresponding 3D director field with the marked hyperbola and ellipse defects. [(b) and (d)] 3D CARSPM images of in samples with (b) single FCD and (d) multiple FCDs embedded into flat parallel layers. The images have been reconstructed using a series of cross sections obtained in the F-CARS mode at different depths of the sample and with step in the direction. The sample area is in (b) and in (d).
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