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(Color online) Effective permittivity (a), permeability (b), refractive index (c), and impedance (d) of the passive nanowire NIMs, as schematically shown in the inset in (b); solid lines corresponds to , dashed to , and dash-dotted to . The inset in (a) shows the real and imaginary parts of permittivity of host material
(Color online) Real and imaginary parts of the effective permittivity [(a) and (b)], permeability [(e) and (f)], refractive index [(c) and (d)], real part of impedance (g) of active nanowire NIMs, and reflection from the semi-infinite slab of this system (i). Solid, dashed, and dash-dotted curves correspond to , and , respectively. The insets in (a) and (b) show the real and imaginary parts of permittivity of host material, respectively.
The direction of wavevector (and thus the sign of refractive index) in optical material is related to the interplay between transparency and gain/loss state of the media. The table summarizes this dependence. First column represents the transparency state of the material determined by the sign of product ; the sign of (second column) determines whether the material is passive or active . The sign of the refractive index is selected to satisfy the requirement for wave attenuation or growth (third column).
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