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(a) All-ferromagnetic nonlocal spin valve (NLSV) system and (b) its one-dimensional circuit geometry. FM1, FM2, and FM3 are ferromagnetic layers and tunneling barriers are denoted as 1 and 3. is the electric current and is the distance between FM1 and FM3. The easy axes of all the ferromagnetic layers are assumed to be the same.
Calculated dependence of nonlocal spin signal on external magnetic field. The Co is taken as the magnetic material and is taken as the tunnel barriers. Also shown is the magnetic configuration at each stage. See also Table I.
Dependence of in Eq. (3) on the relative orientation of FM1, FM2, and FM3. The arrows denote magnetization directions. is the bulk SP of the magnetic material for FM2. The same FM material is taken for FM1, FM2, and FM3, resulting in .
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