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(Color online) Schematic illustrations for the fabrication of the dual alignment layer and surface morphology of the rubbed dual alignment layer.
(Color online) AFM images of the rubbed PDMS surface in the dual alignment layer for the different numbers of rubbings.
(Color online) Variation of the pretilt angle with the number of rubbings. The inset represents the conoscopy images of the LC cell with various pretilt angles.
(Color online) Voltage-transmittance curves of pi cells with a low pretilt angle (red dots) and an intermediate pretilt angle (black squares).
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