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(a) Current vs voltage characteristics of a capacitor structure with a top electrode area, (b) Cross-sectional TEM image of the as-grown film showing a fine columnar structure. Cross-sectional TEM images of the film after the set (c) and reset (d) processes showing the changes in grain shapes, particularly, near the top Pt electrode. The dotted lines, indicated in (c) and (d), denote the boundary of randomly deformed areas in the film.
(Color online) Cross-sectional HAADF-STEM (a) and HR-TEM (b) images of the switching failed film showing the grains generally broken from the columnar shapes. (c) Typical HR-TEM image obtained at the film near the top Pt electrode, which clearly illustrates irregularly broken grains as indicated by the dotted line. (d) Electron energy-loss spectra taken from the area G1 (grain) and area G2 (grain boundary) of (a) with the probe size of .
(a) High-resolution HAADF-STEM image obtained from the as-grown film with the incident beam parallel to the direction. The corresponding structure model is indicated in the inset. (b) HR-TEM image of the switching failed film along the zone axis showing an irregular grain. (c) Two enlarged HR-TEM images obtained from the framed regions A and B of (b). The atomic structure of region B shows slightly modulated Ni atoms from the periodic arrangement, although there is a blur due to the local deviation from zone axis imaging conditions.
(Color online) Schematic views for the general transition model of the filamentary conducting paths: (a) in the as-grown film, (b) in the film after switching to the set state, and (c) in the film after switching to the irreversible low resistance state.
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