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Complicated three-dimensional photonic crystals fabricated by holographic lithography
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(a) Simulated isointensity surface of one kind of 3D holographic complicated structure. The top surface is a kagomelike lattice and the right side is a cleavage plane. The Miller indices are based on the hexagonal lattice in (b). (b) Structure is a compound hexagonal lattice within a unit cell, it has three different layers (, , and ) and a lattice constant of in direction. (c) Top layer is a kagomelike lattice. [(d) and (e)] and layers have a similar symmetry but different from the top one.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) (a) Laser beam geometry for creating the interference pattern of Fig. 1(a). (b) CCD image of the fcc lattice. , , and layers represented by three gray triangles are clearly seen. An overlay shows how to construct the 3D modulation structure. (c) CCD image of a 2D hexagonal lattice represented by the overlay in (b).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

SEM images of a 3D complicated polymeric PhC. (a) Close-up shows clearly a kagomelike lattice on the top surface. (b) Low magnification view illustrates a large uniform area of the sample, and a long valley exhibits well-defined features of the broad side. [(c) and (d)] Cleavage plane with focus at different depth reveals a chainlike lattice. On the natural cleavage plane, the appearances of motifs are different from the section shape in the simulation image.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) (a) Skyrocketlike diffraction pattern marked by the basic indices reveals a cluster of bright points in most diffraction spots. (b) Transmission spectrum for the complicated PhC. A partial band gap as a valley at longer wavelengths is due to the structural characters.


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Scitation: Complicated three-dimensional photonic crystals fabricated by holographic lithography