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Effects of carbon on ion-implantation-induced disorder in GaN
4.J. Mickevicius, R. Aleksiejunas, M. S. Shur, S. Sakalauskas, G. Tamulaitis, Q. Fareed, and R. Gaska, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 041910 (2005).
6.Such a suppression of material decomposition explains the difference in sample color if the black color of amorphous GaN is related to ion-beam-induced material decomposition with the formation of gas bubbles embedded in a Ga-rich matrix.
8.Reference spectra of in the gas phase were measured from a ZnO sample containing large (over several microns in diameter) gas bubbles. This calibration sample was provided by J. Denlinger from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
9.Ballistic calculations of the profiles of atomic displacements and implanted C atoms were performed with the TRIM code (version SRIM-2003.26) (Ref. 10).
10.J. F. Ziegler, J. P. Biersack, and U. Littmark, The Stopping and Range of Ions in Solids (Pergamon, New York, 1985), Vol. 1, p
13.The energy positions and intensities of the two narrow peaks at 399.4 and in N -edge spectra of C-implanted samples are independent of the sample orientation relative to the incident x-ray beam axis. However, for unimplanted GaN samples, the intensities of the major peaks in N -edge spectra and the position of the peak at in Ga -edge spectra exhibit an angular dependence.
16.Although an accurate quantitative evaluation of XANES sensitivity to defect-related states is not straightforward and requires calculation of the transition matrix elements and the densities of states involved, XANES is generally sensitive to concentrations of defects comparable to the atomic concentration in the material. Indeed, the signal from defects is detected when the density of defect-related electronic states is roughly comparable to the density of states in the conduction band. Such a large concentration of ion-beam-produced point defects is unlikely since, for most semiconductors, with a local concentration of point defects of even , the energy of the defective lattice would exceed that of the amorphous phase, making such a defective lattice energetically unfavorable. (Ref. 17) For an additional discussion of defect studies with XANES, see, for example, Ref. 18.
17.J. A. Davis, in Ion Implantation and Beam Processing, edited by J. S. Williams and J. M. Poate (Academic, Sydney, 1984), p. 81.
18.S. O. Kucheyev, C. Bostedt, T. van Buuren, T. M. Willey, T. A. Land, L. J. Terminello, T. E. Felter, A. V. Hamza, S. G. Demos, and A. J. Nelson, Phys. Rev. B 70, 245106 (2004).
19.See, for example, N. Hellgren, J. Guo, C. Sathe, A. Agui, J. Nordgren, Y. Luo, H. Agren, and J. E. Sundgren, Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 4348 (2001); and references therein.
20.S. O. Kucheyev (unpublished).
21.In addition to C–N, C–Ga, and Ga–Ga bonding studied here, C–C bonds could also exist in C-implanted GaN. Possible formation of such C–C bonds requires further studies.
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