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(Color online) Surface potential profile obtained from the blue line of the inset figure. The inset figures show the topography and the surface potential distribution of a downward poled domain.
(Color online) (a) Surface potential, PFM phase, and PFM amplitude images overlapped with corresponding topography. (b) Surface potential profile obtained from the blue line A and the green line B of (a). The dotted line presents the location of the grain boundaries.
(Color online) (a) Topography (left) and current image (right). The dark color in the current image presents the higher leakage current. (b) Leakage current as a function of applied voltage at the grain (G) and the grain boundaries (GB1, GB2, and GB3).
(Color online) (a) Surface potential distribution as a function of the elapsed time. (b) Surface potential profile as a function of the elapsed time at the blue line of (a). A, B, and C present each grain on the blue line.
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