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Schematic diagram of (a) modified ALD and (b) conventional ALD sequence.
(Color online) (a) Dependence of the film thickness per cycle on pulse time, deposited by conventional ALD and modified ALD. One cycle consisted source pulse, purge pulse, oxygen pulse, and another purge pulse of . (b) Diffraction patterns by XRD.
(Color online) (a) Dependence of film thickness on the number of deposition cycles. (b) The amount of deposited Ru atoms as a function of deposition cycles, determined by XRR.
(Color online) Step coverage of Ru and films deposited by ALD and modified ALD, respectively, at (a) top, (b) center, and (c) bottom of circle type concave hole. To separate each layer explicitly in the TEM images, -thick ALD layer is inserted between ALD Ru and modified ALD layers.
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