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Secondary electron imaging at gas pressures in excess of
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View: Figures


Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) Charge coupled device image of the experimental setup. The cone acts as a pressure limiting aperture (PLA) (minimum inner and sample-PLA ). Inset: Left, close-up showing the PLA-sample gap and the anode-beam axis separation ; and right, electron image of the anode tip.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Electron images of tin spheres in an amorphous carbon matrix acquired using (a) a gaseous detector with a needle-shaped anode (shown in Fig. 1), [(b) and (c)] standard off-axis gaseous secondary electron detector (SSED), and (d) a solid state backscattered electron (BSE) detector. The arrows point to secondary electron contrast that is present in images (a) and (b) and absent from (c) and (d). (, , and dwell ).

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) Electron inelastic mean free path calculated at (mm, right axis) and (, left axis) using the excitation (Ref. 18), vibrational (Ref. 19), and ionization (Ref. 20) cross sections of . Also shown is the ratio .

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

(Color online) Anode current measured as a function of anode tip coordinate , at a number of coordinates , using electrically grounded Al as the specimen. Inset: measured as a function of PLA and sample bias (, , , defocused beam, and ).


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Secondary electron imaging at gas pressures in excess of 1kPa