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(Color online) Illustration of the fine Coulomb fission. Step 1, a spherical primary droplet charged to the Rayleigh limit. Step 2, the primary droplet reforms into an ellipsoid. Step 3, the primary droplet forms two symmetric sharp tips. Step 4, two jets form out of the sharp tips. Step 5, the jets break up into a large number of secondary droplets. (For clarity, only several magnified secondary droplets are shown here.) Step 6, the jets disappear after ejection of a significant percentage of charge but a negligible percentage of mass. Step 7, the primary droplet reforms back into an ellipsoid. Step 8, the primary droplet reforms back into a sphere, now charged well below the Rayleigh limit.
Scanning electron microscope image of titania nanoparticles generated by FFESS. Inset shows a magnified image of larger particles, revealing a second distribution of smaller nanoparticles.
(Color online) (a) Schematic of the jet formation from a primary droplet and breakup into secondary droplets through fine Coulomb fission. (b) Optical image of single-jet FFESS showing jet formation and breakup into primary droplets.
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