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3.A. H. Castro Neto, F. Guinea, and N. M. R. Peres, Phys. World 19, 33 (2007).
6.H. Petroski, The Pencil: A History of Design and Circumstance (Knopf, New York, 1989), Chap. 4, pp. 36–47.
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8.Filtered light images are taken with a Nikon DS-2MBWc monochrome camera. White light images are taken with a Nikon DS-2Mv color camera. Cheaper cameras are more likely to do extensive postprocessing of images in firmware or software that could enhance contrast.
9.Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, edited by E. D. Palik (Academic, New York, 1991), 2, pp. 457–458.
11.Linus Pauling, The Nature of the Chemical Bond (Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 1960), Chap. 7, pp. 234–235.
12.In Ref. 9, the refractive index of bulk graphite is within 5% of between 300 and . At , the extinction coefficient jumps to 1.73, but this coincides with a change of reference in the handbook, which we have chosen to ignore in our model.
13.H. Anders, Thin Films in Optics (Focal, London, 1967), Pt. 1, pp. 18–48.
14.The experimental contrast was found by computer analysis of the images obtained using a monochrome camera Ref. 8. The thickness of usually differs by up to 5% from nominal values provided by suppliers and, accordingly, in our theoretical calculations in Fig. 2, the following values for were used to acheive the best fit: (a) , (b) , and (c) .
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, R. Piner
, D. A. Dikin
, S. Stankovich
, S. Watcharotone
, M. Hausner
, and R. S. Ruoff
, e-print arXiv:cond-mat/0706.0029
, A. Hartschuh
, E. Lidorikis
, H. Qian
, H. Harutyunyan
, T. Gokus
, K. S. Novoselov
, and A. C. Ferrari
, e-print arXiv:cond-mat/0705.2645
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