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Correlation between the lattice parameter and the dielectric tunability in nonepitaxial thin films
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14.The W-doping level variation is obtained by increasing the content in the BST-0.5 target (0.5, 2, ). The Al-codoping level variation is carried out by varying the surface area of the alumina piece positioning on the W-doped target (0.81, 1.61, 2.58, 3.23, and ). Note that the laser fluence has to be increased for Al-codoping sample synthesis in order to ablate alumina .
15.For all sample sets, the XRD peak intensities are similar to the powder diffraction spectra. This observation is consistent with nontextured BST films.
16.The XRD peak position has been calibrated on alumina substrate peaks. The x-ray radiation wavelength considered for calculation is .
18.The presence of oxygen vacancies results in an increase of the lattice parameter due to the reduction of Coulomb attractive force between cation and anion atoms.
19.A reduction of oxygen content has been measured on samples deposited at as compared to samples.
20.We cannot exclude that the presence of W may also affect the concentration of oxygen vacancies, and consequently, contribute to the lattice parameter variation.
21.The detailed formulas and constants used for the calculation of these two parameters can be found in Refs. 10 and 11.
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