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(Color online) Model of a patch (length ) of the electrode/electrolyte interface for a quasi-1D electrode as depicted on the left-hand side of the picture. All quantities are per unit length except , , and (taken as a complex value) which are in . is the lateral resistance of the diffuse layer, is the resistance of the interconnections, is the resistance of the metallic electrode, is the Stern capacitance of the double layer, the charge transfer resistance, is the impedance of the diffuse layer, and and are the capacitance and the resistance of the bulk solution, respectively.
(Color online) (a) Geometric factor accounting for both increased current at electrode edges and asymmetric charging along the direction. (b) Electric field tangential to the electrode surface, and (c) charge above the electrode surface. Both (b) and (c) are averages over a half-period depicted on a half-electrode for various driving frequencies. (d) Comparison of the measured pumping efficiency (defined as the flow velocity at the plane of laminar flow closest to the surface) of an asymmetric interdigitated electrode array pumping (stars), and simulated velocity over the large electrode (solid line).
(Color online) (a) ITO T electrodes on a glass substrate with a PDMS chamber (scale bar: ). (b) Two-dimensional flow velocity (in ) for solutions (driving signal: constant amplitude ; frequency was increased incrementally from ). Each data point corresponds to a given frequency. The arrows indicate for each trace the direction of increasing frequency between data points.
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