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(Color) (a) Schematic of the simulation setup. A rod impacts on the (0001) surface of -alumina single crystal with a speed of . Deformations are visualized on the two major inner planes and . (b) Pressure distribution at with inner surfaces and exposed. The dashed lines represent the basal plane at a depth of , which is visualized in Fig. 2(a).
(Color) (a) Snapshot of the substrate’s cross section on the basal plane at a depth of (the dashed line in Fig. 1(b)) and at . Coordination numbers are used to color-code atoms. (b) A closeup of the boxed region color coded by atomic species, with two pyramidal slips circled out. Here is the coordination number of atoms.
(Color) (a) Ring analysis results in a basal slice of in front of the projectile tip at . T1, one of the twins (white arrows) along the , is on the boundary of a severely deformed region. It is also shown in (b), the center plane (plane defined in Fig. 1) view where atoms are color coded by their coordination numbers and the projectile atoms are colored in white. (c) A close-up image of (b) showing details of twin T1. The positions of the dislocations are determined by the misalignment of lattice planes.
(Color) (a) prism plane view of a rhombohedral twin. The red and blue spheres are oxygen and aluminum atoms, respectively. (b) The twinning region in a thin slice of prism plane (plane defined in Fig. 1). The atoms are color coded if they have different numbers of six-member rings from perfect crystal. The streaks on the right are twins along the , while the ones on the left running perpendicular are twins along the and .
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